Czech
 

by
Laura A. Janda
and
Charles E. Townsend






Table of Contents

0. Socio- and geolinguistic situation
0.1 Location and number of speakers
0.2 Relation of Czech to other languages
0.3 Dialectology
0.4 Diglossia

1. Phonology
1.1 Phonemes and alphabet
Alphabet
Vowels
The liquids r and l
Consonants
1.2 Phonological rules
Stress
Glottal stop
Voicing phenomena
Consonant clusters
Vowel epenthesis
Phonology of Colloquial Czech

2. Morphology.
2.1 Inflectional morphology
2.1.0 Morphophonemic alternations in inflection
Vowel-zero alternations
Qualitative vowel alternations
Quantitative vowel alternations
Type 1 (half-softening) consonant alternations
Type 2 (full-softening) consonant alternations
Isolated and suppletive types
2.1.1 Noun morphology
2.1.1.1 Masculine paradigms
Hard stems
Inanimate: rozbor analysis
Animate: bratr brother
Animacy
Soft stems
Inanimate: koš basket
Animate: malíř painter
Stems alternating between hard and soft
kotel cauldron
Special types
-a virile: přednosta chief, head
-e virile: zachránce savior
2.1.1.2 Neuter paradigms
Hard stems
město city
Soft stems
Special types
-ět-/-at- type: slůně baby elephant
-í type: nábřeží waterfont
2.1.1.3 Feminine paradigms
Hard stems
žena woman
Soft stems
růže rose.
Feminine nouns ending in a consonant
Nsg in zero, -e/ě type: dlaň palm of hand
Nsg in zero, -i type: kost bone.
2.1.1.4 Nouns of variable or indeterminate gender
2.1.2 Adjectival morphology
2.1.2.1 Long form adjectives
Hard stems
druhý second; other
Soft stems
první first
2.1.2.2 Short form adjectives and possessive adjectives
Short form adjectives
nemocný ill
Possessive adjectives
bratrův brothers
2.1.2.3 Comparatives and superlatives
Comparative adjectives
Superlative adjectives
2.1.2.4 Deadjectival adverbs
Adverbs formed from adjectives
Comparative adverbs
Superlative adverbs
2.1.3 Pronominal morphology
Personal, reflexive, and interrogative pronouns
First person
Second person.
Third person.
Reflexive pronoun.
Interrogative pronouns: kdo who and co what
Possessive pronouns
můj my (tvůj thy, your has the same endings)
náš our (váš your has the same declension)
Demonstrative pronoun
ten this, that, the
Relative and other pronouns.
sám oneself
všechen all
2.1.4 Numeral morphology
Cardinal numerals
jeden one
dva two
tři three and čtyři four
Ordinal numerals
Indefinite numerals
Other numerals
2.1.5 Verbal morphology
2.1.5.1 Conjugation classes
TYPE I - SUFFIXED with 1sg -ám
TYPE II - SUFFIXED with 1sg -ím
TYPE III - SUFFIXED with 1sg -u/-i
TYPE III - NONSUFFIXED with 1sg -u/-i
Irregular verbs:
Imperative formation
Gerunds and active participles
2.1.5.2 Negation
2.1.5.3 Aspectual derivation
Formation of perfectives
Formation of imperfectives
2.1.5.4 Motion verbs.
2.1.6 Uninflected parts of speech
2.2 Derivational morphology
2.2.1 Derivational morphology of nouns, adjectives, and verbs
2.2.1.1 Prefixes for nouns, adjectives, and verbs
2.2.1.2 Derivation of nouns
Derivation of nouns from nouns, adjectives, and verbs
Suffixes and Endings for Masculine Nouns
Suffixes and Endings for Neuter Nouns
Suffixes and Endings for Feminine Nouns
Derivation of nouns from adverbs, prepositional phrases, and numerals
Derivation of nouns via compounding
Derivation of diminutive and augmentative nouns
2.2.1.3 Derivation of adjectives
Derivation of diminutive, augmentative, and attenuative adjectives
Derivation of possessive adjectives
Derivation of compound adjectives
2.2.1.4 Derivation of adverbs and pronouns
2.2.1.5 Derivation of verbs
Verbs derived with the reflexives se and si
Factitives in -it.
Becoming and being verbs in -at, -it, -ět, -nout
Diminutive verbs
Foreign borrowings and neologisms with -ovat
2.3 Morphology of Colloquial Czech
2.3.1 Inflection of nouns.
2.3.2 Inflection of adjectives and adverbs
druhej second; other.
2.3.4 Inflection of pronouns
2.3.5 Inflection of numerals
2.3.6 Inflection of verbs

3 Syntax
3.1 Syntax of noun phrases
3.1.1 The nominative case
3.1.1.1 Naming functions
3.1.1.2 The subject of a clause
3.1.1.3 The predicate of copula sentences
3.1.1.4 Comparison and apposition
3.1.2 The genitive case.
3.1.2.1 Source meanings involving from
3.1.2.2 Goal meanings involving to
Verbs that Require the Genitive
Verbs that Can Govern the Genitive or the Accusative
3.1.2.3 Whole meanings involving of, possession, and category membership
3.1.2.4 Reference meanings involving at with dates and other reference points
3.1.3 The dative case.
3.1.3.1 Experiencer meanings involving to and for
Synonyms and Near-Synonyms of give.
Synonyms and Near-Synonyms of take.
Words Meaning give self to
Words Meaning take self from
Words Expressing the Giving of Messages, Money, Gifts
Verbs Expressing Benefit
Verbs Expressing Harm.
3.1.3.2 Competitor meanings involving against and to.
Words Expressing Matched Forces
Words Expressing Inclination, Submission
Words Expressing Domination
3.1.4 The accusative case
3.1.4.1 Destination meanings involving to, for and the direct object.
3.1.4.2 Dimension meanings involving through, during
3.1.5 The vocative case
3.1.6 The locative case and place meanings involving in, on, at
3.1.7 The instrumental case
3.1.7.1 Means meanings involving through, by
3.1.7.2 Label meanings involving like, as
3.1.7.3 Accompaniment meanings involving with
3.1.7.4 Proximal landmark meanings involving before, behind, above, under, between
3.2 Numeral syntax
3.2.1 The syntax of cardinal numerals
3.2.2 The syntax of telling time
3.3 Intraclausal syntax
3.3.1 Word order in declarative clauses
3.3.2 Negative clauses
3.3.3 Interrogative clauses
3.3.4 Commands, requests, and hopes
3.3.5 Passives, reflexives, reciprocals, intensives, and causatives
3.4 Interclausal syntax
3.4.1 Coordination
3.4.2 Subordination
3.4.3 Relative clauses
3.5 Syntax of Colloquial Czech

4 Texts
Literary Czech Text
Colloquial Czech Text

Abbreviations

Bibliography