Hudba



Orbis Pictus: Hudební nástroje

Wikipedie: Hudba

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Melodická invence je skutečným cílem každého skladatele. Není-li schopen vymyslet melodie, které přetrvají, jsou jeho šance na zvládnutí materiálu velice mizivé. - Rachmaninov


 
 
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Převzato z elektronických skript doc. PhDr. Josefa Prokeše, PhD. z Fakulty informatiky Masarykovy univerzity v Brně:
 

V určitých kulturách se výrazněji uplatňuje melodie: můžeme si připomenout některé země Orientu, v nichž je oblíben nepatrný čtvrttónový interval.

Podíváme-li se, jak to vypadá jinde ve světě, uvidíme, že rozvoj hudebních schopností může probíhat různě.

  • Příkladem hudebně zaměřené společnosti jsou nigerijští Anangové. S hudbou se seznamuje už dítě, kterému je sotva týden. První zkušenosti získává od matky, otec mu pak vyrobí malý bubínek. Od dvou let se ve skupině děti učí základním kulturním dovednostem včetně zpěvu, tance a hry na hudební nástroje. Když je malému Anangovi pět, umí zazpívat stovky písní, hrát na různé bubínky a předvést desítky složitých tanečních pohybů.
  • Vendové z jihoafrického severního Transvaalu učí své děti vyjadřovat hudbu jen motoricky a vůbec nezpívají.
  • Senegambijští Griotové, proslulí svou hudebností, se hudebně vzdělávají několik let. 
V některých kulturách si uvědomují, že v hudebním nadání jednotlivců jsou velké rozdíly. 
  • V Ghaně ve kmeni Ewe provádějí rituál, při němž si ti méně nadaní lehnou na zem, hudební mistr sedí vedle nich a vtlouká jim rytmus do těla i duše.
  • Již zmínění Anangové jsou naopak přesvědčeni, že hudebně nadaní jsou všichni lidé. Antropologové, kteří tento kmen studovali, tvrdí, že se mezi Anangy nikdy nesetkali s člověkem, který by byl „nemuzikální“.
Hudební schopnosti jsou oceňovány i v některých vyspělých kulturách. Můžeme se zmínit o Číně, Japonsku a Maďarsku, kde se od všech dětí očekává, že se naučí dobře zpívat a většinou také hrát na hudební nástroj.
 



Adapted form http://www.ffl.msu.ru/img/pages/File/Music-short.doc

American music

  • American Folk songs.  In the early 19th century American music consisted largely of songs borrowed from England. In most cases an American poet, often unknown, wrote verses to a popular English tune and the song became popular and was later considered by Americans as their own folk song.
  • Traditional Scottish ballads were also popular in America at that time especially among farmers and cowboys. Usually they were adopted by Americans without changes.
  • After the Civil war Americans started to produce their own melodies, which resembled European, but still were slightly different and thus those melodies sounded more American.
  • Black music in the 19th century America developed in its own way. At that time most blacks in America were slaves. Most white slave owners did not let the slaves keep their traditional African dances or music. In America all the slaves had to be converted into Christians. That’s why slaves were forced by their white master to go to church on Sundays. In those churches slaves were forced to sing white religious songs but they added African rhythms to the music. That’s why black music in America developed as religious music and those traditional black songs were called spirituals. Most spirituals were very sad and they told people about the hard life of the slaves and their wish to run way.
  • After the Civil war white Americans began to listen to the music of black slaves. As the result, white Americans developed a new kind of music in a black style. White men often dressed and acted like black men. They wore black make-up on their faces. The most popular song writer of that time was Stephen Foster.
American popular music
  • It refers to the kinds of music enjoyed by a broad public and stands in contrast to the classical music of the Western European tradition. Some music historians, in fact, see the development of American music as a dialogue between the “serious” music of high art and the music heard on street corners or in dance halls.
  • As the 20th century progressed, the line between popular and serious music became blurred. George Gershvin, for example, was a popular composer whose music has always been admired in educated circles. Classical styles often influenced Hollywood film composers.
  • Jazz, which began as a popular style in music, music played mainly in bars and dance halls, has developed to the point that nowadays jazz is often called the part of the big “C” culture, culture for educated elite. American popular music started to develop fast in the period from the 1920s through the 1940s, which is known as the golden age of American popular music.
  • New York became the music centre of the world. There was an area in NYC called Tin Pan Alley, where NY music companies had many pianos in many small rooms. The song writers wrote songs all day on the pianos. The sound of several pianos resembled the sound of tin pans. At the same time big record players called juke boxes appeared in bars, drug stores and cafes. To play the juke box, you put a coin into the machine, chose a song and pushed a button. And it was the period when American new music styles  appeared.
  • American popular music is diverse and it would be impossible to talk about all contemporary music styles in America.

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    The most popular three styles:

    • Jazz
      • The first jazz bands appeared in  New Orleans in the 1920s and nowadays New Orleans is probably the jazz capital of the USA
      • Jazz has developed as a music of blacks and originally was a music of the black protest against slavery. Improvisation, which is a characteristic feature of this music style, reveals the blacks’ desire of freedom.
      • Another characteristic feature of this music is the sound of trumpets, which derived from old black slaves’ spirituals.
      • Jazz started in the 1920s as music for dancing, but later it became so complicated in rhythm that now it is considered as music mostly for listening.
    • Country Western
      • Was created by the rural people of the Appalachian Mountain region. They based their songs on English and Scottish ballads.
      • Country songs tell us about trivial things: the farmers’ life, their families and their crops.
      • The sound of the fiddle is heard practically in every song.
      • The 1st recording of a country music song appeared in 1922. In 1925 a radio station in Nashville, Tennessee started a weekly broadcast of live performances of country fiddlers, which eventually turned Nashville into the capital of the country-music recording industry.
      • Country music has become popular since the 1950s.
    • Rock’n’roll
      • Rock’n’roll has become popular since the 1950s and actually is a mixture of styles, still but there exist some characteristic features of this music style.
      • It claims itself as a style of youth.
      • It was shaped as adaptation of black music by white performers, in other words, it was an adaptation of black music (rhythm and blues) for white teenagers. At that time the owner of Sun Record Company said “If I could find a white man who had the Negro sound and the Negro feel, I could make a billion dollars”. Soon he found him - it was Elvis Presley.
      • In the 1960s big rock concerts became popular. The most famous one was in 1969 in Woodstock.
      • Rock, like jazz, started as a dance music, but then developed more complicated rhythm and now is often treated as a serious music.